Considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable immobilization approaches to improve enzyme stability and reusability. However, relatively complicated preparation often leads to compromised enzyme activity. This study reports a facile method of retaining full enzymatic activity by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) into core-shell nanoparticles with polydopamine (PDA) sandwiched between a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) core and a calcium phosphate (CaP) shell (Au@PDA@CaP). The strong adhesion of PDA on Au NPs and its metal chelating properties directed the preferential growth of the CaP shell on the Au NPs, leading to well-dispersed and uniform nanohybrids. Concurrent loading of GOx during the growth of CaP held the key to the successful immobilization of GOx. As a result, Au@PDA@CaP-immobilized GOx had similar activity but better resistance against heating, long-term storage and repeated uses compared to free GOx. This work provides a green strategy for constructing nanobiocatalysts with high enzyme activity and stability.