Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) is a rare tumor, which occurs in upper respiratory tract, mainly in larynx. This study aimed to review the clinical and pathological characteristics for diagnosis and prognosis. Retrospective cohort study. All patients with SpCC in upper respiratory tract treated for curative intent was included. All patients were reviewed in search of epithelial component and immunohistochemistry when not found. It was evaluated rate of recurrence and disease-free survival with univariate and multivariate analysis with Kaplan Meier and Cox Regression model adjusted to propensity score indexes (PSI) according to age, gender, site of tumor, stage, surgical treatment, status of margins of surgical resection, lymphatic invasion. There were 16 cases of SpCC.31% were diagnosed with light microscopy and others with immunohistochemistry for epithelial marker. Disease-free survival was higher in early stage disease in univariate and multivariate analysis, as the main prognostic factor. Surgical treatment increases in 2.54 the rate of survival. The SpCC is a rare tumor considered a highly malignant variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It has male predominance and tobacco use as risk factors. Its treatment should follow the same recommendations for squamous cell carcinoma, with surgery as the maintain treatment. Immunohistochemistry is an adjuvant important tool for diagnosis of SpCC.
Keywords: Head and neck cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Prognostic factors; Sarcomatoid carcinoma; Spindle cell carcinoma.