Background: Musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common. It often exists in several sites and is recurrent. Psychosocial difficulties and unhealthy behaviours have been related to multisite MS pain, but no literature has assessed the impact of accumulated psychosocial and lifestyle factors on recurrent multiple MS pain.
Methods: Our data were gathered from two questionnaires of the well-known Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986), sent to members when they were aged 16 and 18. A total of 1,625 adolescents (712 boys and 913 girls) answered questions on smoking, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleeping and emotional and behavioural problems at 16 years and on musculoskeletal pain at 16 and 18 years. Weight and height measurements were taken at a health examination at baseline. A latent class analysis and multinomial regression analysis were conducted.
Results: We identified four clusters among both sexes. "Externalizing behavior" among both genders (OR 2.98, CI 1.73-5.13 among boys; OR 2.38, CI 1.38-4.11 among girls), "Multiple risk behaviors" among girls (OR 2.73, CI 1.30-5.71) and a "Sedentary" cluster among boys (OR 1.85, CI 1.21-2.82) were associated to recurrent multisite MS pain. "Obese" clusters had no significant associations with recurrent multiple MS pain.
Conclusions: Adolescents with psychosocial difficulties and/or several adverse health behaviours were at an increased risk of recurrent multisite MS pain, which emphasizes the importance of simultaneously studying multiple rather than single factors. The identification of risk groups may help more accurately target preventive interventions.
Significance: This study found subgroups of adolescents at risk of recurrent multisite musculoskeletal pain during late adolescence. The accumulation of multiple adverse behaviours is likely to provide new perspectives for understanding the multidimensional nature of multiple MS pains.
© 2019 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Psychosocial and Lifestyle Correlates of Musculoskeletal Pain Patterns in Adolescence: A 2-year Follow-Up StudyL Jussila et al. Eur J Pain 18 (1), 139-46. PMID 23853106.The strong overlap of emotional and behavioural problems and MS pains in adolescence requires awareness in both research and clinical work.
Risk Factors for Persistence of Multiple Musculoskeletal Pains in Adolescence: A 2-year Follow-Up StudyMV Paananen et al. Eur J Pain 14 (10), 1026-32. PMID 20403716.Musculoskeletal pain in multiple sites is common already in adolescence, and may lead to subsequent musculoskeletal complaints in adulthood. We examined predictive factor …
Psychosocial, Mechanical, and Metabolic Factors in Adolescents' Musculoskeletal Pain in Multiple Locations: A Cross-Sectional StudyMV Paananen et al. Eur J Pain 14 (4), 395-401. PMID 19640750.Recent studies indicate that adolescents often experience musculoskeletal pains in two or more body locations. However, previous studies have mainly focused on localized …
Lifestyle Intervention for Improving School Achievement in Overweight or Obese Children and AdolescentsA Martin et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3), CD009728. PMID 24627300. - ReviewDespite the large number of childhood obesity treatment trials, evidence regarding their impact on school achievement and cognitive abilities is lacking. Existing studies …
Psychosocial Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in ChildhoodRA Abbott et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1 (1), CD010971. PMID 28072460. - ReviewThe data from trials to date provide some evidence for beneficial effects of CBT and hypnotherapy in reducing pain in the short term in children and adolescents presentin …
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School age forms and profiles. Burlington, NJ: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth and Families.
- Basch, M. C., Chow, E. T., Logan, D. E., Borsook, D., Schechter, N. L., & Simons, L. E. (2018). Cumulative effects of multiple pain sites in youth with chronic pain. European Journal of Pain, 22, 1134-1141. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1201
- Berg-Nielsen, T. S., Vika, A., & Dahl, A. A. (2003). When adolescents disagree with their mothers: CBCL-YSR discrepancies related to maternal depression and adolescent self-esteem. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29, 207-213. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.2003.00332.x
- Bonvanie, I. J., Oldehinkel, A. J., Rosmalen, J. G. M., & Janssens, K. A. M. (2016). Sleep problems and pain: A longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults. Pain, 157, 957-963. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000466
- Broberg, A. G., Ekeroth, K., Gustafsson, P. A., Hansson, K., Hagglof, B., Ivarsson, T., & Larsson, B. (2001). Self-reported competencies and problems among Swedish adolescents: A normative study of the YSR. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 186-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007870170025