Prostate involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Rheumatol Int. 2019 Jul;39(7):1269-1277. doi: 10.1007/s00296-019-04321-9. Epub 2019 May 9.


To present a case of prostate involvement (PI) in granulomatosis polyangiitis (GPA) and analyse related published reports. We employed the following keywords for retrieving reports indexed by MEDLINE/PubMed and/or Scopus: "granulomatosis with polyangiitis", "Wegener granulomatosis" and "prostate involvement". Additional searches were performed through Google Scholar and HINARI. All cases that fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for GPA, standards of Chapel Hill Consensus Conference, and did not match with exclusion criteria were analysed and summarised. A 35-year-old man presented with complaints of stuffy nose, difficulty breathing through the nose, swelling and pain in the left half of the nose, low-grade fever, and discomfort. The nasal mucosal biopsy did not reveal any specific changes. During the inpatient treatment, he developed eye redness, tearing, dysuria, and decreased urinary stream. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was elevated (2.81 μg/L; normal values ≤ 1.4 μg/L for males below 40 years). Prostate biopsy findings were consistent with diagnosis of GPA, which was confirmed by detecting elevated anti-PR3 antibodies (4.1 IU; normal values < 1.0 IU). We analysed our case in view of the clinical course of 45 published cases of PI in GPA. PI in GPA is a rare clinical manifestation of the vasculitis. Patients with atypical clinical symptoms of GPA are at risk of delayed diagnosis. The awareness of variable clinical presentations of GPA, particularly specific affection of the prostate gland, is crucial for timely diagnosis.

Keywords: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis; Prostate; Urogenital system; Urological manifestations.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / blood
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / diagnosis*
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate / pathology*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen