Aims: To investigate the effects of acetazolamide on natriuresis, decongestion, kidney function and neurohumoral activation in acute heart failure (AHF).
Methods and results: This prospective, two-centre study included 34 AHF patients on loop diuretics with volume overload. All had a serum sodium concentration < 135 mmol/L and/or serum urea/creatinine ratio > 50 and/or an admission serum creatinine increase of > 0.3 mg/dL compared to baseline. Patients were randomised towards acetazolamide 250-500 mg daily plus bumetanide 1-2 mg bid vs. high-dose loop diuretics (bumetanide bid with daily dose twice the oral maintenance dose). The primary endpoint was natriuresis after 24 h. Natriuresis after 24 h was similar in the combinational treatment vs. loop diuretic only arm (264 ± 126 vs. 234 ± 133 mmol; P = 0.515). Loop diuretic efficiency, defined as natriuresis corrected for loop diuretic dose, was higher in the group receiving acetazolamide (84 ± 46 vs. 52 ± 42 mmol/mg bumetanide; P = 0.048). More patients in the combinational treatment arm had an increase in serum creatinine levels > 0.3 mg/dL (P = 0.046). N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide reduction and peak neurohumoral activation within 72 h were comparable among treatment arms. There was a non-significant trend towards lower all-cause mortality or heart failure readmissions in the group receiving acetazolamide with low-dose loop diuretics vs. high-dose loop diuretic monotherapy (P = 0.098).
Conclusion: Addition of acetazolamide increases the natriuretic response to loop diuretics compared to an increase in loop diuretic dose in AHF at high risk for diuretic resistance.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01973335.
Keywords: Acetazolamide; Cardiorenal syndrome; Diuretics; Natriuresis; Systolic heart failure.
© 2019 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2019 European Society of Cardiology.