A number of studies have assessed the association between vitamin D and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in different populations, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we systematically reviewed available observational and interventional evidence to elucidate the overall relationship between vitamin D and PMS. PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for all available articles until September 2018. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale and Jadad scale were used to assess the quality of the observational and interventional studies, respectively. A total of 16 studies out of 196 met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Although no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and PMS (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 3.35; 95% confidence interval, -7.80 to 1.11; p = 0.14) was indicated in observational studies, vitamin D supplementation was effective in ameliorating PMS symptoms based upon findings from interventional studies. These results add to the existing literature supporting the fact that nutrition, especially vitamin D, plays an important role in women's health. Additional well-designed clinical trials should be considered in future research to develop firm conclusions on the efficacy of vitamin D on PMS. KEY TEACHING POINTS 5-8% of women experience severe PMS. Nutrition especially vitamin D plays an important role in the women's health. Vitamin D could exert significant clinical effects on PMS symptoms. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis in this regard.
Keywords: PMS; Vitamin D; meta-analysis; premenstrual syndrome; systematic review.