Recommendations for Clinical CYP2C9 Genotyping Allele Selection: A Joint Recommendation of the Association for Molecular Pathology and College of American Pathologists

J Mol Diagn. 2019 Sep;21(5):746-755. doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2019.04.003. Epub 2019 May 8.


The goals of the Association for Molecular Pathology Pharmacogenomics (PGx) Working Group of the Association for Molecular Pathology Clinical Practice Committee are to define the key attributes of PGx alleles recommended for clinical testing and a minimum set of variants that should be included in clinical PGx genotyping assays. This document provides recommendations for a minimum panel of variant alleles (Tier 1) and an extended panel of variant alleles (Tier 2) that will aid clinical laboratories when designing assays for CYP2C9 testing. The Working Group considered the functional impact of the variants, allele frequencies in different populations and ethnicities, the availability of reference materials, and other technical considerations for PGx testing when developing these recommendations. Our goal is to promote standardization of testing PGx genes and alleles across clinical laboratories. These recommendations are not to be interpreted as restrictive but to provide a reference guide. The current document will focus on CYP2C9 testing that can be applied to all CYP2C9-related medications. A separate recommendation on warfarin PGx testing is being developed to include recommendations on CYP2C9 alleles and additional warfarin sensitivity-associated genes and alleles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 / genetics*
  • Guidelines as Topic*
  • Humans
  • Pathology, Molecular*
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing / methods
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing / standards*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*


  • Anticoagulants
  • CYP2C9 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9