J Clin Immunol. 2019 Apr;39(3):277-286. doi: 10.1007/s10875-019-00638-z. Epub 2019 May 10.


Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare inherited autoinflammatory disorder characterized by systemic, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and central nervous system inflammation. Gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3 in CAPS patients lead to activation of the cryopyrin inflammasome, resulting in the inappropriate release of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and CAPS-related inflammatory symptoms. Several mechanisms have been identified that are important for the normal regulation of the cryopyrin inflammasome in order to prevent uncontrolled inflammation. Investigators have taken advantage of some of these pathways to develop and apply novel targeted therapies, which have resulted in improved quality of life for patients with this orphan disease.

Keywords: Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome; Muckle–Wells syndrome; cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes; inflammasome; neonatal onset multi-system inflammatory disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity
  • Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes / immunology*
  • Gain of Function Mutation / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Inflammasomes / metabolism*
  • Inflammation
  • NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein / genetics*


  • Inflammasomes
  • NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein
  • NLRP3 protein, human