EWSR1/FUS-NFATc2 rearranged round cell sarcoma: clinicopathological series of 4 cases and literature review

Hum Pathol. 2019 Aug:90:45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2019.05.001. Epub 2019 May 9.


The classification of bone neoplasms composed of small round cells is experiencing a transformation after the discovery of various gene fusion rearrangements that determine diagnosis, behavior, and response to therapy. We present herein 4 new cases of small round cell tumor of the bone that harbor NFATc2 rearrangements involving either EWSR1 or FUS genes. We studied the clinical presentation, pathologic features, genetics (FISH, targeted RNA sequencing) and outcome in these 4 patients. We also reviewed the literature describing similar cases. All our patients were male. The median age at diagnosis was 33.5 years. All tumors presented in long bones of the extremities as a large destructive mass with a mean size of 12.5 cm. All cases were hypercellular with prominent collagenous stroma and consisted of small to medium size round cells arranged in cords, thin trabeculae, and pseudoacinar structures. Most cases showed focal or diffuse membrane staining for CD99; whereas S100, synaptophysin and chromogranin were negative. EMA showed cytoplasmic staining in one case. Genetic studies identified EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion in 3 cases, and FUS-NFATc2 fusion in one case. Two patients were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Ewing sarcoma regimens, and surgical excision was performed on 3 patients; necrosis was minimal. Follow-up is limited; after a median follow-up of 8.7 months, one patient developed local recurrence and metastases to the lungs. Poorly differentiated round cell sarcoma with EWSR1/FUS-NFATc2 fusions are uncommon. The tumors have consistent clinical findings, morphology, and immunoprofile that in combination are distinctive and differ from that of Ewing sarcoma. Importantly, these tumors do not respond to Ewing sarcoma chemotherapy regimens.

Keywords: Bone neoplasms; Ewing sarcoma; FUS; NFATc2-EWSR1; Round cell sarcoma; Undifferentiated sarcoma.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Bone Neoplasms / genetics
  • Bone Neoplasms / pathology
  • Gene Fusion*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • NFATC Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • RNA-Binding Protein EWS / genetics*
  • RNA-Binding Protein FUS / genetics*
  • Sarcoma / diagnosis*
  • Sarcoma / genetics
  • Sarcoma / pathology


  • NFATC Transcription Factors
  • RNA-Binding Protein EWS
  • RNA-Binding Protein FUS