2019 HRS expert consensus statement on evaluation, risk stratification, and management of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy

Heart Rhythm. 2019 Nov;16(11):e301-e372. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.05.007. Epub 2019 May 9.


Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an arrhythmogenic disorder of the myocardium not secondary to ischemic, hypertensive, or valvular heart disease. ACM incorporates a broad spectrum of genetic, systemic, infectious, and inflammatory disorders. This designation includes, but is not limited to, arrhythmogenic right/left ventricular cardiomyopathy, cardiac amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Chagas disease, and left ventricular noncompaction. The ACM phenotype overlaps with other cardiomyopathies, particularly dilated cardiomyopathy with arrhythmia presentation that may be associated with ventricular dilatation and/or impaired systolic function. This expert consensus statement provides the clinician with guidance on evaluation and management of ACM and includes clinically relevant information on genetics and disease mechanisms. PICO questions were utilized to evaluate contemporary evidence and provide clinical guidance related to exercise in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Recommendations were developed and approved by an expert writing group, after a systematic literature search with evidence tables, and discussion of their own clinical experience, to present the current knowledge in the field. Each recommendation is presented using the Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence system formulated by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association and is accompanied by references and explanatory text to provide essential context. The ongoing recognition of the genetic basis of ACM provides the opportunity to examine the diverse triggers and potential common pathway for the development of disease and arrhythmia.

Keywords: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; Arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy; Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; Cascade family screening; Catheter ablation; Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; Disease mechanisms; Electrophysiology; Exercise restriction; Genetic testing; Genetic variants; ICD decisions; Left ventricular noncompaction; Risk stratification; Treatment of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia / diagnosis*
  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia / therapy*
  • Consensus
  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment