In silico analysis of transmembrane protein 31 (TMEM31) antigen to design novel multiepitope peptide and DNA cancer vaccines against melanoma

Mol Immunol. 2019 Aug:112:93-102. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2019.04.030. Epub 2019 May 9.


Multiepitope cancer vaccines are announcing themselves as the future of melanoma treatment. Herein, high immunogenic regions of transmembrane protein 31 (TMEM31) antigen were selected according to cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTL) epitopes and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding affinity through in silico analyses. The 32-62, 77-105, and 125-165 residues of the TMEM31 were selected as the immunodominant fragments. They were linked together by RVRR and HEYGAEALERAG motifs to improve epitopes separation and presentation. In addition, to activate helper T lymphocytes (HTL), Pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) peptide sequence and tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFrC) were incorporated into the final construct. Also, the Beta-defensin conserved domain was utilized in the final construct as a novel adjuvant for Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor (TLR4-MD) activation. The CTL epitopes, cleavage sites, post-translational modifications, TAP transport efficiency, and B cells epitopes were predicted for the peptide vaccine. The final construct contained multiple CTL and B cell epitopes. In addition, it showed 93.55% and 99.13% population coverage in the world for HLA I and HLA II, respectively. According to these preliminary results, the multiepitope cancer vaccine can be an appropriate choice for further experimental investigations.

Keywords: Cancer vaccine; Cancer/testis antigen; In silico; Melanoma; TMEM31.

MeSH terms

  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology*
  • Computer Simulation
  • DNA / immunology
  • Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte / immunology
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / immunology
  • Humans
  • Malaria Vaccines / immunology
  • Melanoma / immunology*
  • Membrane Proteins / immunology*
  • Peptide Fragments / immunology
  • Peptides / immunology
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology
  • Tetanus Toxin / immunology
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology*


  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Malaria Vaccines
  • Membrane Proteins
  • PADRE 45
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Peptides
  • Tetanus Toxin
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • tetanus toxin fragment C
  • DNA