Pesticides have been associated with various pathologies, and there is growing evidence of pesticide presence in domestic environments. However, most available studies focused on a limited number of pesticides or households, and few have been conducted in Europe. We aimed to assess indoor pesticide contamination by screening the prevalence of 276 pesticides and ten pesticide metabolites, in French households from different agricultural and urban areas. We sampled indoor dust from 239 households in 2012, proximate to orchards (n = 69), cereals (n = 66) and vineyard (n = 68) crops, or from urban area (n = 36). we used cellulose wipes moistened with isopropanol and polypropylene dust traps to collect recent (7 and 30 days, respectively) and settled dust (> 6 months). Overall, 125 pesticides and piperonyl butoxide were detected at least once in households, mostly at low prevalence: 97 in recent dust, and 111 in settled dust. In recent dust, the most prevalent compounds were o-phenylphenol (168 households, 70%), pentachlorophenol (86, 36%), and piperonyl butoxide (82, 34%). In addition to agricultural pesticides, we found a high proportion of domestic and banned compounds in recent and settled house dust. Several pesticides were identified in house dust, from different pesticide groups and sources. Our results suggest that domestic usage and persistence of banned pesticides may contribute substantially to indoor pesticide contamination. Graphical abstract 97 pesticides detected in households' recent indoor dust.
Keywords: Agriculture; Airborne contamination; Dust; Gardening; Pesticides.