Introduction: In the last two decades, an increasing number of people living with HIV (PLWH) have undergone solid-organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation as a treatment of end-stage organ and hematological diseases, respectively. Although transplant outcomes are more than satisfactory, transplantation in PLWH is still challenging for clinicians because of concerns regarding potentially higher rates of infective complications, higher risks of allograft rejection, and drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and immunosuppressive agents.
Areas covered: This review provides an overview of transplantation in PLWH, with focus on the management of combination antiretroviral therapy in this population.
Expert opinion: Solid-organ and hematopoietic cell transplantations should be proposed without any reservation to all PLWH who may benefit from them. Particular attention should be paid to possible drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressive agents; moreover, when feasible, integrase strand transfer inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens should be preferred to protease and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Considering the worse prognosis in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) transplant recipients, treatment of HCV with new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) represents a key issue in the management of this population. However, the timing of treatment (before or early after transplant) should be individualized by considering short-term prognosis, access to transplant, and comorbidities.
Keywords: Antiretrovirals; HIV; drug-drug interactions; hematopoietic cell transplantation; immunosuppressants; solid-organ transplantation.