Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrosis that is mediated by a variety of proteins including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and receptor-interacting proteins (RIPs). TNF-α, a critical inflammatory molecule, is one of the initiating signals in the necroptosis pathway, and RIP3 acts as a switch that commits the cell to necroptosis. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common type of hemorrhagic stroke with high mortality and disability rates. RIP3 has been studied in many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, but its role in SAH has not been investigated in depth. Here, we used an autologous-blood injection model to study the role of RIP3 in brain injury induced by SAH in rats. Several indexes such as brain edema, loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and behavioral tests of neurological function were used to evaluate brain damage in SAH-injured rats. We found that the expression of RIP3 was increased in the rat brain after SAH, reaching the highest point 24 h post-injury. We also showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of RIP3 or TNF-α reduced the brain damage induced by SAH, whereas overexpression of RIP3 aggravated brain injury and neurological damage. Additionally, we verified the presence of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in an in vitro SAH model of primary cultured neurons treated with conditioned medium from primary microglia activated by oxygen hemoglobin (OxyHb). Collectively, our findings indicated that RIP3 contributed to brain damage after SAH by inducing necroptosis.
Keywords: Early brain injury; Inflammation; Necroptosis; RIP3; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; TNF-α.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.