Objectives: To investigate whether semi-quantitative and pharmacokinetic perfusion dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) parameters are associated with traditional prognostic factors and can predict clinical outcome in ovarian cancer (OC).
Methods: This prospective study, approved by local ethical committee, enrolled 38 patients with primary OC, 2011-2014. After preoperative DCE-MRI (3.0 T), two observers measured perfusion (Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp) and semi-quantitative parameters (area under the curve, peak, time-to-peak) by drawing regions of interest (ROIs) covering the large solid lesion (L-ROI) and the most enhancing small area (S-ROI) (NordicICE platform). Kruskal-Wallis was used to analyze associations between MRI parameters and classified prognostic factors.
Results: Mean Ktrans values were higher in high-grade serous OC than in other types (L-ROI, P = 0.041; S-ROI, P = 0.018), and lower mean Ktrans values predicted residual tumor (L-ROI P = 0.030; S-ROI, P = 0.012). Higher minimum Vp values were associated with higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (S-ROI, P = 0.023).Shorter recurrence-free survival was predicted by higher Ve (minimum L-ROI, P = 0.035; maximum S-ROI, P = 0.046), Vp (maximum S-ROI, P = 0.033), and lower time-to-peak (maximum S-ROI, P = 0.047) in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multiparametric MRI variables combining DCE and diffusion weighted data were also predictive for survival.
Conclusion: DCE-MRI parameters may represent imaging biomarkers for predicting tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in OC. Higher Ktrans levels were associated with better results in cytoreductive surgery but with earlier recurrence.
Keywords: Biomarkers; Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging; Magnetic resonance imaging; Ovarian cancer; Prognosis.
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