Oxysterols and apolipoproteins in multiple sclerosis: a 5 year follow-up study

J Lipid Res. 2019 Jul;60(7):1190-1198. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M089664. Epub 2019 May 13.


The purpose of this work was to investigate whether changes in oxysterol and apolipoprotein levels over 5 years are associated with disease course and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study included 139 subjects [39 healthy controls (HCs), 61 relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients, and 39 progressive MS (P-MS) patients]. Oxysterols [24-hydroxycholesterol (24HC), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7αHC), and 7-ketocholesterol (7KC)] were measured at baseline and 5 years using a novel mass spectrometric method, and apolipoproteins were measured using immunoturbidometric diagnostic kits. Levels of 24HC (P = 0.004), 25HC (P = 0.029), and 27HC (P = 0.026) increased in P-MS patients. 7KC (P = 0.047) and 7αHC (P = 0.001) levels decreased in RR-MS patients, and there were no changes in any oxysterols in HCs. In MS patients, ApoC-II (all P ≤ 0.01) and ApoE (all P ≤ 0.01) changes were positively associated with all oxysterol levels. Increases in 24HC (P = 0.038) and ApoB (P = 0.038) and decreases in 7KC (P = 0.020) were observed in RR-MS patients who converted to secondary P-MS (SP-MS) at follow-up and in SP-MS patients compared with RR-MS patients. Oxysterols and their associations with apolipoproteins differed between MS patients and HCs over 5 years. Oxysterol and apolipoprotein changes were associated with conversion to SP-MS.

Keywords: cholesterol; disease progression; metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Apolipoproteins / blood*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hydroxycholesterols / blood
  • Ketocholesterols / blood
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis / blood*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / pathology
  • Oxysterols / blood*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult


  • Apolipoproteins
  • Hydroxycholesterols
  • Ketocholesterols
  • Oxysterols
  • 24-hydroxycholesterol
  • 27-hydroxycholesterol
  • 25-hydroxycholesterol
  • 7-ketocholesterol