Novel pathogenic XK mutations in McLeod syndrome and interaction between XK protein and chorein

Neurol Genet. 2019 Apr 22;5(3):e328. doi: 10.1212/NXG.0000000000000328. eCollection 2019 Jun.


Objective: To identify XK pathologic mutations in 6 patients with suspected McLeod syndrome (MLS) and a possible interaction between the chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc)- and MLS-responsible proteins: chorein and XK protein.

Methods: Erythrocyte membrane proteins from patients with suspected MLS and patients with ChAc, ChAc mutant carriers, and normal controls were analyzed by XK and chorein immunoblotting. We performed mutation analysis and XK immunoblotting to molecularly diagnose the patients with suspected MLS. Lysates of cultured cells were co-immunoprecipitated with anti-XK and anti-chorein antibodies.

Results: All suspected MLS cases were molecularly diagnosed with MLS, and novel mutations were identified. The average onset age was 46.8 ± 8 years, which was older than that of the patients with ChAc. The immunoblot analysis revealed remarkably reduced chorein immunoreactivity in all patients with MLS. The immunoprecipitation analysis indicated a direct or indirect chorein-XK interaction.

Conclusions: In this study, XK pathogenic mutations were identified in all 6 MLS cases, including novel mutations. Chorein immunoreactions were significantly reduced in MLS erythrocyte membranes. In addition, we demonstrated a possible interaction between the chorein and XK protein via molecular analysis. The reduction in chorein expression is similar to that between Kell antigens and XK protein, although the chorein-XK interaction is a possibly noncovalent binding unlike the covalent Kell-XK complex. Our results suggest that reduced chorein levels following lack of XK protein are possibly associated with molecular pathogenesis in MLS.