Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first emerged in late 2012. Since its emergence, a total of 2279 patients from 27 countries have been infected across the globe according to a World Health Organization (WHO) report (Feb. 12th, 2019). Approximately 806 patients have died. The virus uses its spike proteins as adhesive factors that are proinflammatory for host entry through a specific receptor called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). This receptor is considered a key factor in the signaling and activation of the acquired and innate immune responses in infected patients. Using potent antigens in combination with strong adjuvants may effectively trigger the activation of specific MERS-CoV cellular responses as well as the production of neutralizing antibodies. Unfortunately, to date, there is no effective approved treatment or vaccine for MERS-CoV. Thus, there are urgent needs for the development of novel MERS-CoV therapies as well as vaccines to help minimize the spread of the virus from infected patients, thereby mitigating the risk of any potential pandemics. Our main goals are to highlight and describe the current knowledge of both the innate and adaptive immune responses to MERS-CoV and the current state of MERS-CoV vaccine development. We believe this study will increase our understanding of the mechanisms that enhance the MERS-CoV immune response and subsequently contribute to the control of MERS-CoV infections.