To capture the emergent properties of neural circuits, high-speed volumetric imaging of neural activity at cellular resolution is needed. Here, we introduce wavelength multiplexing to perform fast volumetric two-photon imaging of cortical columns (>2,000 neurons in 10 planes at 10 vol/s), using two different calcium indicators, an electrically tunable lens and a spatial light modulator. We image the activity of neuronal populations from layers 2/3 to 5 of primary visual cortex from awake mice, finding a lack of columnar structures in orientation responses and revealing correlations between layers which differ from trial to trial. We also simultaneously image functional correlations between presynaptic layer 1 axons and postsynaptic layer 2/3 neurons. Wavelength multiplexing enhances high-speed volumetric microscopy and can be combined with other optical multiplexing methods to easily boost imaging throughput.
Keywords: beam multiplexing; ensembles; spatial light modulator; two-photon calcium imaging; volumetric imaging; wavefront shaping; wavelength multiplexing.
Published by Elsevier Inc.