Repeats in S1 Proteins: Flexibility and Tendency for Intrinsic Disorder

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 14;20(10):2377. doi: 10.3390/ijms20102377.


An important feature of ribosomal S1 proteins is multiple copies of structural domains in bacteria, the number of which changes in a strictly limited range from one to six. For S1 proteins, little is known about the contribution of flexible regions to protein domain function. We exhaustively studied a tendency for intrinsic disorder and flexibility within and between structural domains for all available UniProt S1 sequences. Using charge-hydrophobicity plot cumulative distribution function (CH-CDF) analysis we classified 53% of S1 proteins as ordered proteins; the remaining proteins were related to molten globule state. S1 proteins are characterized by an equal ratio of regions connecting the secondary structure within and between structural domains, which indicates a similar organization of separate S1 domains and multi-domain S1 proteins. According to the FoldUnfold and IsUnstruct programs, in the multi-domain proteins, relatively short flexible or disordered regions are predominant. The lowest percentage of flexibility is in the central parts of multi-domain proteins. Our results suggest that the ratio of flexibility in the separate domains is related to their roles in the activity and functionality of S1: a more stable and compact central part in the multi-domain proteins is vital for RNA interaction, terminals domains are important for other functions.

Keywords: FoldUnfold program; IsUnstruct program; intrinsically flexibility; ribosomal proteins S1; structural domains.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Intrinsically Disordered Proteins / chemistry*
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation
  • Protein Domains
  • Protein Folding*
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid*
  • Ribosomal Proteins / chemistry*


  • Intrinsically Disordered Proteins
  • Ribosomal Proteins
  • ribosomal protein S1