What Influences Sustainment and Nonsustainment of Facilitation Activities in Implementation? Analysis of Organizational Factors in Hospitals Implementing TeamSTEPPS

Med Care Res Rev. 2021 Apr;78(2):146-156. doi: 10.1177/1077558719848267. Epub 2019 May 16.


Implementation processes are often long and complex, requiring sustained facilitation efforts. Drawing on organizational and implementation literature, we examined the influence of senior management support (SMS), middle management support (MMS), facilitator team time availability (TIME) and team continuity (CONTINUITY) on sustainment of internal facilitation activities. For 2 years, we followed 10 small rural hospitals implementing TeamSTEPPS, a patient safety program, and conducted quarterly interviews with key informants. We coded, calibrated, and analyzed the data using the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. We found that five hospitals sustained facilitation activities and the combination of SMS, MMS, and CONTINUITY (i.e., presence of all three factors) was a sufficient condition for sustainment. Five other hospitals did not sustain facilitation activities and they either lacked MMS or lacked both TIME and CONTINUITY. In follow-up analyses, we found that team leadership continuity also influenced sustainment patterns. We discussed the implications for research and practice.

Keywords: TeamSTEPPS; facilitation; fsQCA; hospitals; implementation; sustainment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Evidence-Based Practice*
  • Hospitals, Rural
  • Humans
  • Leadership*
  • Patient Safety