A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Venue-Related Social and Structural Context of Drug Use During Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico

AIDS Behav. 2020 Mar;24(3):724-737. doi: 10.1007/s10461-019-02519-3.


Drug use during sex increases risks for HIV acquisition. Male clients of female sex workers (FSW) represent both a key population at risk for HIV as well as a transmission bridge population. In Tijuana, Mexico, drug use is prevalent and there is a need to understand male clients' drug use during sex with FSW. Characteristics of sex work venues may confer higher risks for drug use, risky sex, and HIV/STI. It is essential to understand the venue-related social and structural factors associated with drug use during sex in order to inform HIV prevention interventions with male clients in this region. We used a Mixed-Methods Sequential Explanatory Design to conduct an enriched examination of drug use during sex among male clients of FSW in Tijuana. Findings from logistic regression analysis showed that drug use during sex was significantly correlated with police harassment (AOR = 4.06, p < .001) and methamphetamine use (AOR = 33.77, p < .001). In-depth interview data provided rich meaning behind and context around the quantitative associations. Social and structural interventions to reduce police harassment, methamphetamine use, and promote condom availability are needed to reduce risks for HIV among male clients of FSW in Tijuana.

Keywords: Drug use; FSW; HIV risk; Male clients; Sexual risk behavior; Venues.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Condoms
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk-Taking
  • Sex Work / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sex Workers*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / psychology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / transmission*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Unsafe Sex / psychology*
  • Unsafe Sex / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult