Next-Wave HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Implementation for Gay and Bisexual Men

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2019 Jun;33(6):253-261. doi: 10.1089/apc.2018.0290. Epub 2019 May 16.


Data indicate that diffusion of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programs for HIV prevention is increasing in the United States; however, persistent disparities in PrEP access remain. Earlier waves of PrEP implementation focused on development (2012-2015) and diffusion (2016-2018). To reduce disparities, the next wave of PrEP implementation should focus on integration; that is, the assimilation of PrEP service as an integral part of HIV prevention, sexual health, and primary care. This review analyzes PrEP implementation literature in the context of three "next-wave" challenges: increasing patient demand, enhancing provider investment and competency, and improving health systems capacity. Our review revealed five activities we consider critical to successful next-wave PrEP implementation efforts: (1) redefining PrEP eligibility assessment, (2) de-emphasizing risk perception as a strategy to increase demand, (3) rejecting risk compensation arguments, (4) altering guidelines to make PrEP follow-up less onerous, and (5) focusing directly on strategies to reduce the cost of PrEP medication. This article ends with a case study of a research-practice partnership designed to instantiate new approaches to integrative implementation efforts.

Keywords: MSM; PrEP; implementation; pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bisexuality / psychology*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis / methods*
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Health
  • United States


  • Anti-HIV Agents