Germ Cell Tumors of the Female Genital Tract

Surg Pathol Clin. 2019 Jun;12(2):621-649. doi: 10.1016/j.path.2019.01.005.


Ovarian germ cell tumors are a histologically diverse group of neoplasms with a common origin in the primitive germ cell. The vast majority are represented by mature cystic teratoma. In the minority are malignant germ cell tumors including immature teratoma, dysgerminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal cell carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma. This article reviews the histologic and immunohistochemical features of the most common ovarian germ cell tumors. The differential diagnoses for each are discussed.

Keywords: Dysgerminoma; Embryonal carcinoma; Germ cell; Ovary; Teratoma; Uterus; Vulva; Yolk sac.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Dysgerminoma / diagnosis
  • Dysgerminoma / pathology
  • Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis
  • Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Teratoma / diagnosis
  • Teratoma / pathology