Anemia in cancer patients is associated with poor quality of life, reduced response to therapy, and decreased overall survival. We describe a case of a 56-year old woman with advanced metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma who demonstrated marked response to a novel combinational immunotherapy approach involving a long-acting PEGylated construct of recombinant human Interleukin-10 with Nivolumab, an anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor. While on treatment, the patient developed severe anemia and hyper-ferritinemia requiring RBC transfusion support. Here we discuss a possible novel immune mechanism of IL10-mediated anemia in correlation with tumor response.
Keywords: Anemia; Clinical trial; Combined immunotherapy; Hyper-ferritinemia; Tumor response correlate.