Objectives: To evaluate the importance of treatment duration for therapeutic efficacy of pivmecillinam for community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 1 January 2010 and 30 September 2016 in adults with community-acquired E. coli bacteriuria, treated empirically with pivmecillinam. Regimens of 3, 5 and 7 days were compared using clinical treatment failure (i.e. redemption of a new antibiotic or hospitalization due to UTI) within 14 and 30 days as outcome. HR and risk difference with 95% CI were estimated for treatment failure. Results were stratified by age (18-50, 51-70, >70 years) and sex.
Results: Of the 21864 cases of E. coli UTI that were analysed, 2524 (11.5%) were in men. In 954 cases (4.4%) E. coli produced ESBL and 125 (13.1%) of the cases were in men. The 3 day regimen increased the risk of treatment failure for all groups. The risk differences between the 3 and 5 day regimens were <10% for women, but >10% for men. Comparing the 7 day and 5 day regimens, only women aged >50 years demonstrated an increased risk of treatment failure within 14 days with the 5 day regimen, but not within 30 days.
Conclusions: With the current data, where data on clinical classification of the E. coli UTI were missing, a 5 day treatment with pivmecillinam at 400 mg three times daily seems to be the rational recommendation for lower UTI in men, pregnant women and women >50 years old. A 3 day regimen seems sufficient for non-pregnant women <50 years old.
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