Chronic renal impairment is often associated with complex bone disorders. Improvement of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is expected after kidney transplant (KT) if the glomerular filtration rate is normalized.
Patients and methods: There were 888 KTs performed between 1996 and 2017 at our department. A total of 558 general patients have been operated on for HPT during the same period. The 2 populations had a common part: out of the 558, a total of 69 (12.4%) were in end-stage renal failure when operated on because of secondary HPT. That also means that 7.8% of all KTs were associated with HPT. Retrospective, single-center analysis was performed using the patients' medical records. The aim of our study was to analyze the results of parathyroidectomies after KT.
Results: Parathyroid surgery was performed on 19 patients (2.14%) because of HPT after KT. The applied surgical technique was total parathyroidectomy with autotransplant in 6 cases, subtotal parathyroidectomy in 3 cases, and selective parathyroidectomy in 10 cases. In all cases, histology revealed benign disease. Complications were observed in 10 cases (52%); there were 6 cases of postoperative hypocalcaemia (31.58%), 1 case of transient laryngeal recurrent nerve paresis (5.26%), and 6 cases of recurrent HPT (31.58%).
Summary: The first step of HPT management is calcimimetic drug treatment. It is essential to prevent possible complications with regular laboratory monitoring. If the proper conservative therapy is refractory or severe in complications, surgery should be chosen. If the patient is already waiting for a KT, it is worth performing the parathyroid surgery before KT. Close collaboration with endocrinologists and nephrologists is needed to achieve successful therapy.
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