Respiratory tract infections are a common cause of visits to emergency departments and outpatient settings. Infections with influenza viruses A and B in particular, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in both pediatric and adult populations worldwide. A significant number of influenza diagnoses occur in the emergency departments with many being performed using rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) which have sensitivities as low as 30% depending on the specific RIDT and patient population. More recently, rapid molecular tests for the detection of influenza viruses A and B have become commercially available as point-of-care platforms. In the United States, several of these new tests are approved by the Food and Drug Administration as CLIA-waived tests. In this report, we review the data on the analytical and clinical performance of RIDTs and CLIA-waived molecular tests, present and discuss potential key challenges and opportunities for implementation of CLIA-waived molecular tests at or near point of care in the emergency departments and outpatient settings.
Keywords: Antigen tests; CLIA-waived testing; Emergency department; Influenza testing; Molecular tests; Point-Of-Care testing.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.