The nutrient requirements of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and their application to fermented milk

J Dairy Sci. 2019 Jul;102(7):5971-5978. doi: 10.3168/jds.2018-15834. Epub 2019 May 15.


Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) performs many physiological functions, but the fermentation time is long when fermented milk is prepared using LGG alone. To shorten the fermentation time, we analyzed the nutrient requirement profiles of LGG. Based on nutrient requirement profiles, we evaluated the effects on the fermentation time, quality, and sensory properties of unmodified cow's milk fermented by LGG alone. According to the consumption and necessary patterns of amino acids and those of purine, pyrimidine, vitamins, metal ions, and nutrients essential to LGG, we selected Cys, Ser, Arg, Pro, Asp, Glu, guanine, uracil, and xanthine with which to supplement milk. Compared with fermented milk prepared using LGG alone in unmodified milk, the fermentation time of supplemented milk was shortened by 5 h. Viable cell counts, titratable acidity, and water-retaining capability of the fermented milk were improved by addition of nutrient supplements. Supplementation with nutrients did not obviously change the sensory and textural characteristics of fermented milk.

Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; fermentation time; fermented milk; nutrient requirements; quality.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Fermentation
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus / physiology*
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Milk / microbiology
  • Nutrients / administration & dosage
  • Probiotics


  • Nutrients