Marine bisindole alkaloid 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl)ethylamine to control and prevent fungal growth on building material: a potential antifungal agent

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Jul;103(14):5607-5616. doi: 10.1007/s00253-019-09895-9. Epub 2019 May 18.


The potential antifungal activity of the marine alkaloid 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl)ethylamine (URB 1204) was firstly assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against different fungi. Then, URB 1204 was applied to a building material experimentally contaminated with selected fungi, in single and mixed species, for determining its potential application in preventing fungal growth. In addition, the over-time protection efficacy of URB 1204 was verified, subjecting the treated building surfaces to natural fungal contamination for 6 weeks. URB 1204 showed different antifungal activity, with the lowest MIC value (16 μg/mL) observed against Aspergillus flavus IDRA01, Cladosporium cladosporioides ATCC 16022 and Mucor circinelloides EHS03, and the highest MIC (128 μg/mL) against the dermatophytes strains. The growth Alternaria alternata BC01, Penicillium citrinum LS1, and C. cladosporioides ATCC 16022 on building material treated with URB 1204 water solution (64 μg/mL) was remarkably reduced with an effect time-dependent and related to the examined fungi. In terms of over-time efficacy, the samples treated with URB 1204 showed a delay of fungal growth comparable with that of a commercial antifungal product. These findings evidenced not only the ability of 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl)ethylamine to limit the growth of different fungal species on building material but also to provide long-term protection against mold growth and proliferation, opening new perspectives for URB 1204 as preventive agent.

Keywords: Building material; Fungal growth; Marine bisindole alkaloid; Preventive agent.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaloids / pharmacology*
  • Aspergillus flavus / drug effects
  • Aspergillus flavus / growth & development
  • Construction Materials / microbiology*
  • Ethylamines / pharmacology*
  • Fungi / drug effects*
  • Fungi / growth & development
  • Fungicides, Industrial / pharmacology*
  • Indoles / pharmacology*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Penicillium / drug effects
  • Penicillium / growth & development


  • 2,2-bis(6-bromo-3-indolyl) ethylamine
  • Alkaloids
  • Ethylamines
  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Indoles