Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is a chronic and heterogeneous disorder. Recent studies have implicated non-normative age-related processes in its pathogenesis. This investigation examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and LLD.
Methods: Data from 603 men and women from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging were analyzed, of whom 167 provided data from a follow-up visit. Muscle bioenergetics was measured by postexercise recovery rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale.
Results: There was no cross-sectional association between baseline depression status and either the PCr recovery rate constant (kPCr; t = -0.553, df = 542; p = 0.580) or mitochondrial capacity largely independent of exercise intensity (adenosine triphosphate maximum [ATPmax]; t = 0.804, df = 553; p = 0.422). Covariate-adjusted Firth logistic regression models however showed that greater decreases in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function from baseline to follow-up were associated with higher odds of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥16) at follow-up (ΔATPmax: odds ratio = 2.63, χ2 = 5.62, df =1; p = 0.018; ΔkPCr: odds ratio = 2.32, χ2 = 5.79, df =1; p = 0.016).
Conclusion: Findings suggest that declining skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in older adults is associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms at follow-up, thereby providing preliminary support for the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may be a potential key pathophysiological mechanism in adults with LLD.
Keywords: Mitochondrial function; aging; depression; fatigue; longitudinal.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.