Randomized Study of the Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Cosupplementation as Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Inflammation and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients

J Diet Suppl. 2020;17(4):384-400. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2019.1600096. Epub 2019 May 20.


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids cosupplementation on inflammation and nutritional status in colorectal cancer patients. In this clinical trial, 81 colorectal cancer patients were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) control group: receiving a vitamin D3 placebo weekly + omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules daily; (2) omega-3 fatty acid group: receiving 2 omega-3 fatty acid capsules (each capsule containing 330 mg of omega-3 fatty acids) daily + a vitamin D3 placebo weekly; (3) vitamin D group: receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D3 soft gel weekly + 2 omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules daily; (4) cosupplementation group: receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D3 soft gel weekly + 2 omega-3 fatty acids capsules daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, height, weight, fat-free mass (FFM), serum levels of 25(OH)D, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin, were measured. After 8 weeks of intervention, patients who received combined vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids supplements compared with omega-3, vitamin D3, and placebo groups had significantly decreased CRP and TNF-α. In addition, serum level of IL-6 was decreased significantly in omega-3, vitamin D3, and cosupplementation groups compared with baseline. Regarding nutritional status, weight, BMI, and FFM% were increased significantly in vitamin D3, omega-3, and cosupplementation groups at the end of the intervention. Vitamin D3 plus omega-3 fatty acids cosupplementation in colorectal cancer patients has beneficial impacts on inflammation and nutritional status.

Keywords: colorectal cancer; inflammatory biomarkers; nutritional status; omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Calcitriol / blood
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood


  • Biomarkers
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • IL6 protein, human
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Cholecalciferol
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Calcitriol