Introduction: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare and life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, consumption thrombocytopenia, and organ injury. TTP pathophysiology is based on a severe ADAMTS13 deficiency, the specific von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease. Areas covered: VWF/ADAMTS13 interaction is specific, and ADAMTS13 conformation has been elucidated recently. ADAMTS13 deficiency is congenital or acquired. Several targets are used in TTP treatment. Expert opinion: Differential diagnosis of TTP may be challenging and ADAMTS13 investigations are needed. ADAMTS13 conformation could be a promising parameter for TTP diagnosis and prognosis in the coming years. Plasma therapy remains the first-line treatment of the acute phase of TTP. Additional curative and preemptive rituximab are used in acquired TTP. Clinical trials dedicated to innovative drugs are promising.
Keywords: ADAMTS13; Thrombotic microangiopathy; autoimmunity; rare disease; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; von Willebrand factor.