Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease

Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Jun;25(6):1144-1152. doi: 10.3201/eid2506.181620.

Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes high case-fatality rates (CFRs) in humans. Two NiV strains have caused outbreaks: the Malaysia strain (NiVM), discovered in 1998-1999 in Malaysia and Singapore (≈40% CFR); and the Bangladesh strain (NiVB), discovered in Bangladesh and India in 2001 (≈80% CFR). Recently, NiVB in African green monkeys resulted in a more severe and lethal disease than NiVM. No NiV vaccines or treatments are licensed for human use. We assessed replication-restricted single-injection recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine NiV vaccine vectors expressing the NiV glycoproteins against NiVB challenge in African green monkeys. All vaccinated animals survived to the study endpoint without signs of NiV disease; all showed development of NiV F Ig, NiV G IgG, or both, as well as neutralizing antibody titers. These data show protective efficacy against a stringent and relevant NiVB model of human infection.

Keywords: Henipavirus; Nipah virus; nonhuman primates; vaccines; vesicular stomatitis virus; viruses; zoonoses.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Veterinary
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chlorocebus aethiops*
  • Female
  • Henipavirus Infections / mortality
  • Henipavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Henipavirus Infections / veterinary*
  • Henipavirus Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Male
  • Monkey Diseases / pathology
  • Monkey Diseases / virology
  • Nipah Virus*
  • Vesiculovirus / immunology*
  • Viral Load
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*
  • Zoonoses*

Substances

  • Viral Vaccines