Physicochemical Characterization of Yellow Cake Prepared With Structured Lipid Oleogels

J Food Sci. 2019 Jun;84(6):1390-1399. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14624. Epub 2019 May 20.


Oleogels were produced using a phytosterol blend of β-sitosterol/γ-oryzanol or a blend of sucrose stearate/ascorbyl palmitate (SSAP) as oleogelators. Four lipid phases were compared in oleogel formation for each oleogelator blend: menhaden oil, structured lipid (SL) of menhaden oil and 30 mol% caprylic acid (SL-C), SL of menhaden oil and 20 mol% stearic acid (SL-S), and SL of menhaden oil and 14 mol% each of caprylic and stearic acid (SL-CS). All SLs were produced enzymatically using a recombinant lipase from Candida antarctica as the biocatalyst. Menhaden oil, SL, phytosterol, or SSAP oleogels were evaluated as alternatives to shortening in the preparation of yellow cake in terms of batter and cake physicochemical properties. The shortening, phytosterol, and SSAP oleogel batters exhibited statistically similar specific gravities (0.85). The shortening, and menhaden oil phytosterol and SSAP oleogel batters, exhibited similar Power-Law values (n: 0.78, k: 31 Pa sn ), while all SL (and respective oleogels) batters typically had lower flow index values (n: 0.68 to 0.72), and higher consistency index values (k: 45 to 79 Pa sn ). All SL (and respective oleogels) cakes exhibited lower hardness (5 to 8 N) and chewiness (4 to 6 N) than the shortening cake (12 N, 9 N). Menhaden oil and SL-S phytosterol oleogel cakes, and SL-CS SSAP oleogel cake, showed similar textural properties to the shortening cake. Both phytosterol and SSAP oleogels were acceptable as zero trans-fat substitutes for shortening in yellow cake. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The oleogels in this study may be a suitable replacement for shortening in yellow cake. These oleogels, which contain health beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have the potential to lower consumer consumption of total saturated fat when used in foods.

Keywords: cake; lipase; menhaden oil; oleogels; structured lipids.

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Caprylates
  • Fat Substitutes*
  • Fatty Acids*
  • Fish Oils*
  • Food Analysis
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Gels
  • Organic Chemicals
  • Phenylpropionates
  • Phytosterols*
  • Sitosterols
  • Stearic Acids
  • Sucrose / analogs & derivatives*


  • Caprylates
  • Fat Substitutes
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fish Oils
  • Gels
  • Organic Chemicals
  • Phenylpropionates
  • Phytosterols
  • Sitosterols
  • Stearic Acids
  • oleogels
  • Menhaden oil
  • sucrose monostearate
  • stearic acid
  • Sucrose
  • gamma-sitosterol
  • octanoic acid
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • 6-O-palmitoylascorbic acid
  • gamma-oryzanol