Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in overweight and obese premenopausal women

Arch Med Sci. 2019 May;15(3):598-606. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2018.75864. Epub 2018 May 21.

Abstract

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem, and it is related to increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D has a beneficial effect on dyslipidemia and insulin secretion. We aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric and laboratory parameters in overweight and obese premenopausal women.

Material and methods: Seventy-two overweight and 50 obese vitamin-D-deficient premenopausal women (mean age: 43.1 ±10.4 years) were included in the study. Baseline mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level was 6.1 (min.-max. = 2.9-15.8) ng/ml in overweight and was 5.6 (min.-max. = 3.0-22.0) ng/ml in obese subjects. At baseline and at the sixth month of supplementation, serum 25(OH)D, intact parathormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profiles were assessed.

Results: Following vitamin D3 supplementation in overweight and obese subjects, serum 25(OH)D increased from 6.1 to 34.7 ng/ml and 5.6 to 34.7 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.001). At the sixth month of supplementation in both overweight and obese subjects, a significant reduction was detected in HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.046, p = 0.044; respectively) and iPTH levels (p ≤ 0.001, p < 0.001; respectively). A negative adjusted correlation was found between changes in 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR (r = -0.581, p < 0.001; r = -0.389, p = 0.005; respectively). A 1 ng/ml increase in serum 25(OH)D level led to a 0.30-fold reduction in HOMA-IR level (p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Our results support the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in HOMA-IR and LDL-C improvement in both obese and overweight subjects. Further studies focused on low serum 25(OH)D levels with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are needed.

Keywords: calcitriol; dyslipidemias; insulin resistance; obesity.