Risk assessment of energy drinks with focus on cardiovascular parameters and energy drink consumption in Europe

Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Aug:130:109-121. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.028. Epub 2019 May 18.


To assess the possible cardiovascular risks associated with energy drink (ED) consumption in Europe, a comprehensive literature research was performed in regard to (i) possible ED-induced dose-dependent cardiovascular outcomes, (ii) ED consumption patterns in Europe and (iii) the risks of EDs in combination with alcohol. The identified intervention studies primarily investigated acute ED effects in young healthy adults. Moderate consumption of EDs corresponding to an acute caffeine intake of up to 200 mg did not result in clinically relevant cardiovascular changes in young healthy adults. However, high intake of EDs (about 1 L) was associated with moderate to severe adverse effects in some participants (i.a. prolonged QTc interval, palpitations). Studies have indicated that on some occasions, a substantial proportion of ED consuming children and adolescents (12% in 16 EU Member States) drink EDs in high quantities (≥1 L). This could pose a possible health risk to this group since adverse effects by such high ED consumption have been observed already in young healthy adults. Among further measures that might be considered to minimize this identified risk, policy makers could develop information and educational programs with the aim of raising public awareness.

Keywords: Adverse effects; Alcohol; Caffeine; Cardiovascular; Consumption; Energy drinks; Taurine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / administration & dosage
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / adverse effects
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / chemistry
  • Energy Drinks / adverse effects*
  • Energy Drinks / analysis
  • Europe
  • Humans


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants