Aberrant epigenetic modifications are responsible for tumor development and cancer progression; however, readily reversible. Bioactive molecules from diets are promising to cure cancer by modulating epigenetic marks and changing immune response. These compounds specifically target the activity of DNMTs and HDACs to cure various human cancers. In view of this, we investigated the anticancer and epigenetic regulatory activities of an edible-plant Paederia foetida. The efficacy of methanolic extract of P. foetida leaves (MEPL) was tested for the modulation of epigenetic factors in gene silencing, i.e. DNMT and HDAC and expression pattern of certain tumor-suppressor genes. After treatment of prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145) with MEPL, lupeol and β-sitosterol; induction of apoptosis, decrease in cellular-viability and inhibition of cellular-migration were noticed. Simultaneously there was inhibition of DNMT1, HDACs and pro-inflammatory, IL-6, IL1-β, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory, IL-10 genes in cancer and THP1 cell lines. The DNMT1 protein content, enzyme activity and Bcl2 expression decreased significantly; however, expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and pro-apoptotic gene Bax increased significantly after the treatment of cells with drugs. We conclude plant-derived compounds can be considered to target epigenetic machineries involved with malignant transformation and can open new avenues for cancer therapeutics provoking immune response.
Keywords: E-cadherin; Epigenetics and DNA methyltransferases; Inflammation & immunity; Paederia foetida; Pro-inflammatory cytokines; prostate cancer.
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