Comparison of the diameter of coronary arteries between small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn infants

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Mar;34(6):907-912. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2019.1622668. Epub 2019 Jun 3.


Aim: For the small for gestational age (SGA) infants born at the normal birth time but whose birth weights were below the 10th percentile and for the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants born in normal birth weights according to gestational week, the diameters of right and left coronary arteries were echocardiographically measured in three separate time intervals with their body weights, heights and body surface area parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the progression of coronary artery diameters of SGA infants with AGA infants over time and the effects of coronary artery diameters on the clinical and hemodynamic parameters of SGA babies.

Material and methods: Term 55 SGA babies were compared with 200 AGA infants at birth, first and sixth months of ages for both growth parameters and coronary artery diameters measurements.

Results: In comparison of SGA and AGA groups at birth, first and sixth months of ages on body weight, height and body surface area, aortic annulus and left coronary artery and right coronary artery diameters, it was seen that SGA group could not catch up the AGA group in all time periods on both anthropometric and coronary artery diameters data even if they have an increased growth (p<.05). Although SGA infants appeared to be far away from SGA criteria in body weight measurements at 6th months. These infants maintained a significant deficit in height and coronary artery measurements according to the AGA group (p<.05).

Conclusions: In the evaluation of growth indices and coronary artery diameters at birth, first and sixth months of ages in SGA babies, it is clear that impaired fetal growth of these babies has lasting-effects on coronary artery diameters and cardiac structure.

Keywords: Coronary artery diameters; echocardiography; newborn; small for gestational age (SGA).