Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 May 21;19(1):161.
doi: 10.1186/s12887-019-1506-7.

Effect of Passive Exposure to Cigarette Smoke on Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Effect of Passive Exposure to Cigarette Smoke on Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

Mahshid Aryanpur et al. BMC Pediatr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Hypertension is an emerging disease in children and adolescents resulting in future morbidities. Cigarette smoking is one of the most studied contributing factors in this regard; however, there are contradictory results among different studies. Therefore, the present meta-analysis tends to assess the relationship between passive exposure to cigarette smoke and blood pressure in children and adolescents.

Method: Medline, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO, and Web of Sciences were systematically reviewed for observational studies up to May, 2017, in which the relationship between cigarette smoking and hypertension were assessed in children and adolescents. The meta-analysis was performed with a fixed effect or random effects model according to the heterogeneity.

Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in present meta-analysis incorporating 192,067 children and adolescents. Active smoking (pooled OR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.05) or passive exposure to cigarette smoke (pooled OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.10) were not associated with developing hypertension in the study population. Despite the fact that active cigarette smoking did not significantly affect absolute level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, it was shown that passive exposure to cigarette smoke leads to a significant increase in absolute level of systolic blood pressure (pooled coefficient = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.39).

Conclusion: Both active and passive cigarette smoking were not associated with developing hypertension in children and adolescents. However, passive cigarette smoke was associated with higher level of systolic blood pressure in children and adolescents.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Children and adolescent; Hypertension; Smoking.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Flowchart of present meta-analysis
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Quality assessment of included studies according to Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessment tools
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Forest plot of active and passive exposure to cigarette smoke in incidence of hypertension in children and adolescents A) Pooled odds ratio B) subgroup analysis of effect of passive exposure during pregnancy and domestic exposure on incidence of hypertension. CI: Confidence interval
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Forest plot of effect of active and passive exposure to cigarette smoke on absolute level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. CI: Confidence interval

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Bremner AD. Antihypertensive medication and quality of life—silent treatment of a silent killer? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2002;16(4):353–364. doi: 10.1023/A:1021790112182. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Adrogué HE, Sinaiko AR. Prevalence of hypertension in junior high school-aged children: effect of new recommendations in the 1996 updated task force report. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14(5):412–414. doi: 10.1016/S0895-7061(00)01277-2. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Arar MY, Hogg RJ, Arant BS, Jr, Seikaly MG. Etiology of sustained hypertension in children in the southwestern United States. Pediatr Nephrol. 1994;8(2):186–189. doi: 10.1007/BF00865475. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Stanley JC, Fry WJ. Pediatric renal artery occlusive disease and renovascular hypertension: etiology, diagnosis, and operative treatment. Arch Surg. 1981;116(5):669–676. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.1981.01380170145026. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Ferguson MA, Flynn JT. Treatment of pediatric hypertension: lessons learned from recent clinical trials. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports. 2014;8(9):1–7. doi: 10.1007/s12170-014-0399-0. - DOI

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback