Antero-posterior mandibular position at different vertical levels for mandibular advancing device design

BMC Oral Health. 2019 May 22;19(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s12903-019-0783-8.


Introduction: Mandibular Advancement Devices (MAD) have been reported to be an alternative treatment to CPAP in moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) cases. The design of MAD has a major influence on its success rate on the patient, and design features that have an influence on efficacy, tolerance, and compliance. The aim of this study was to determine the range of mandibular protrusion at different vertical points; 2, 5, 8 and 11 mm in a young adult population.

Methods: Fifty two students aged 19 to 23 years (mean 21.3 ± 1.7; 29 females and 23 males), with full permanent dentition participated in the study. The absolute range of maximal mandibular protrusion and retrusion was measured (mm) with the use of the George Gauge. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and paired t-test using SPSS were used.

Results: Range of mandibular advancement was possible to be determined for the 4 levels of vertical opening with the gauges: 2 mm fork mean mandibular advance 13,10 mm ± 0.604; 5 mm mean 11.98 mm ± 1.075; 8 mm mean 11.20 mm ± 1.369; 11 mm mean 9.87 mm ± 1.886. No significant differences were found between class I, II, and III.

Conclusions: There is an impact of increased inter-incisal distance of effective mandibular protrusion when constructing a MAD. As vertical dimension increases the mandible rotates posteriorly and places itself in a more retrusive location, and the range of mandibular advancement reduces (0.3 mm for every 1 mm of vertical increase).

Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea. Mandibular advancement device. Oral appliance design. Mandibular position; Vertical opening. Mandibular protrusion.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandible
  • Mandibular Advancement*
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vertical Dimension
  • Young Adult