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. 2019 Sep;67(9):663-681.
doi: 10.1369/0022155419852932. Epub 2019 May 22.

Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis: A Double-edged Sword

Free PMC article

Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis: A Double-edged Sword

Laurence M Black et al. J Histochem Cytochem. .
Free PMC article


Renal tissue injury initiates inflammatory and fibrotic processes that occur to promote regeneration and repair. After renal injury, damaged tissue releases cytokines and chemokines, which stimulate activation and infiltration of inflammatory cells to the kidney. Normal tissue repair processes occur simultaneously with activation of myofibroblasts, collagen deposition, and wound healing responses; however, prolonged activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cell types causes excess extracellular matrix deposition. This review focuses on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of specialized cell types, cytokines/chemokines, and growth factors, and their implications in recovery or exacerbation of acute kidney injury.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; cellular transdifferentiation; chemokines; chronic kidney disease; cytokines; extracellular matrix; fibrosis; growth factors; transforming growth factor-β.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The author(s) declared the following potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: AA serves as a consultant for DynaMed and is on the advisory board of Goldilocks Therapeutics.

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