Impact of chromosomal abnormalities on the efficacy of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone treatment in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma

Int J Hematol. 2019 Aug;110(2):228-236. doi: 10.1007/s12185-019-02669-z. Epub 2019 May 22.


Lenalidomide is an effective therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma (MM). However, its efficacy in the context of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) is poorly understood. We retrospectively analyzed 83 patients with relapsed/refractory (RR) MM, who received lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Ld), in the context of CA. The median age and number of prior therapies were 69 and 2, respectively. Three, 11, 45, and 19 patients achieved complete response, very good partial response, partial response, and stable disease, respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 11.1 and 38.8 months, respectively. Seventy-two patients were evaluated for frequently observed translocations; median PFS was 24.4 months in 20 patients with t(11;14), 13.0 months in 16 patients with t(4;14), and 3.7 months in seven patients with t(14;16). G-banded karyotype analysis detected 11 hypodiploid patients, who had shorter PFS and OS (2.5 and 6.2 months, respectively) compared to others (13.0 and 43.7 months, respectively). Hypodiploid patients showed poor clinical outcome, whereas patients with t(11;14) showed favorable outcome. In summary, the present study presents the clinical impact of chromosomal abnormalities on the outcome of Ld therapy, and contributes to understanding the appropriate choice of lenalidomide-based therapy to achieve effective treatment of RR MM.

Keywords: Chromosomal abnormalities; Lenalidomide; Multiple myeloma.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aneuploidy
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Chromosome Aberrations*
  • Chromosome Banding
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Dexamethasone / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Lenalidomide / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics
  • Multiple Myeloma / therapy
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Salvage Therapy
  • Translocation, Genetic
  • Transplantation, Autologous


  • Dexamethasone
  • Lenalidomide