HIV-1 integrase tetramers are the antiviral target of pyridine-based allosteric integrase inhibitors

Elife. 2019 May 23;8:e46344. doi: 10.7554/eLife.46344.


Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are a promising new class of antiretroviral agents that disrupt proper viral maturation by inducing hyper-multimerization of IN. Here we show that lead pyridine-based ALLINI KF116 exhibits striking selectivity for IN tetramers versus lower order protein oligomers. IN structural features that are essential for its functional tetramerization and HIV-1 replication are also critically important for KF116 mediated higher-order IN multimerization. Live cell imaging of single viral particles revealed that KF116 treatment during virion production compromises the tight association of IN with capsid cores during subsequent infection of target cells. We have synthesized the highly active (-)-KF116 enantiomer, which displayed EC50 of ~7 nM against wild type HIV-1 and ~10 fold higher, sub-nM activity against a clinically relevant dolutegravir resistant mutant virus suggesting potential clinical benefits for complementing dolutegravir therapy with pyridine-based ALLINIs.

Keywords: HIV-1; allosteric inhibitors; infectious disease; integrase; microbiology; virus.

Plain language summary

HIV-1 inserts its genetic code into human genomes, turning healthy cells into virus factories. To do this, the virus uses an enzyme called integrase. Front-line treatments against HIV-1 called “integrase strand-transfer inhibitors” stop this enzyme from working. These inhibitors have helped to revolutionize the treatment of HIV/AIDS by protecting the cells from new infections. But, the emergence of drug resistance remains a serious problem. As the virus evolves, it changes the shape of its integrase protein, substantially reducing the effectiveness of the current therapies. One way to overcome this problem is to develop other therapies that can kill the drug resistant viruses by targeting different parts of the integrase protein. It should be much harder for the virus to evolve the right combination of changes to escape two or more treatments at once. A promising class of new compounds are “allosteric integrase inhibitors”. These chemical compounds target a part of the integrase enzyme that the other treatments do not yet reach. Rather than stopping the integrase enzyme from inserting the viral code into the human genome, the new inhibitors make integrase proteins clump together and prevent the formation of infectious viruses. At the moment, these compounds are still experimental. Before they are ready for use in people, researchers need to better understand how they work, and there are several open questions to answer. Integrase proteins work in groups of four and it is not clear how the new compounds make the integrases form large clumps, or what this does to the virus. Understanding this should allow scientists to develop improved versions of the drugs. To answer these questions, Koneru et al. first examined two of the new compounds. A combination of molecular analysis and computer modelling revealed how they work. The compounds link many separate groups of four integrases with each other to form larger and larger clumps, essentially a snowball effect. Live images of infected cells showed that the clumps of integrase get stuck outside of the virus’s protective casing. This leaves them exposed, allowing the cell to destroy the integrase enzymes. Koneru et al. also made a new compound, called (-)-KF116. Not only was this compound able to tackle normal HIV-1, it could block viruses resistant to the other type of integrase treatment. In fact, in laboratory tests, it was 10 times more powerful against these resistant viruses. Together, these findings help to explain how allosteric integrase inhibitors work, taking scientists a step closer to bringing them into the clinic. In the future, new versions of the compounds, like (-)-KF116, could help to tackle drug resistance in HIV-1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Allosteric Regulation / drug effects
  • Antiviral Agents / chemistry
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • HIV Integrase / chemistry
  • HIV Integrase / metabolism*
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Protein Domains
  • Protein Multimerization*
  • Pyridines / chemistry
  • Pyridines / pharmacology*
  • Stereoisomerism


  • Antiviral Agents
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors
  • Pyridines
  • HIV Integrase
  • pyridine
  • p31 integrase protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1