Ex vivo evaluation of a novel surgical guide on the accuracy of closing wedge osteotomies

Vet Surg. 2019 Nov;48(8):1429-1436. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13237. Epub 2019 May 23.


Objective: To determine the influence of a novel surgical guide on the accuracy and technical difficulty of closing wedge osteotomies (CWO).

Study design: Ex vivo experimental study.

Sample population: Canine tibia models (n = 40).

Methods: A 20° cranial CWO (CCWO) was created without (standard procedure; STCCWO) or with the aid of a novel wedge osteotomy guide (WOCCWO). Procedures were performed by diplomate (n = 4) and resident (n = 6) surgeons, with each performing 2 STCCWO followed by 2 WOCCWO. To prevent bias, surgeons were unaware of the study purpose until after completing the STCCWO. The wedges were evaluated by comparing the deviation from the 20° target angle, divergence of the 2 osteotomies (osteotomy divergence angle [ODA]), and measurements of the wedge height at the caudomedial cortex (CMC) and caudolateral cortex (CLC). Technique difficulty was explored through a surgeon questionnaire.

Results: The WOCCWO resulted in smaller mean ODA (WOCCWO = 0.86°, SD ± 0.38°, P < .001), and smaller mean difference between CMC and CLC (WOCCWO = 0.29 mm, SD ± 0.19, P < .001) than for the STCCWO (4.22°, SD ± 2.16° and 1.39 mm, SD ± 0.65 respectively). Deviation from the target 20° wedge angle was greater after STCCWO (1.46°, SD ± 1.27°) than after WOCCWO (0.53°, SD ± 0.33°, P = .004). No difference was reported regarding the difficulty of the procedures, but resident surgeons stated that they were more likely to use the guide in a clinical setting compared with diplomates.

Conclusion: The wedge osteotomy guide improved the accuracy of CCWO compared with standard technique.

Clinical significance: The clinical significance of the differences detected in this study is unclear and warrants in vivo investigation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dogs*
  • Female
  • Male
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Osteotomy / instrumentation
  • Osteotomy / methods
  • Osteotomy / veterinary*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Surgical Instruments / veterinary*
  • Tibia / surgery*