Occurrence and Levels of Salmonella, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Listeria in Raw Wheat

J Food Prot. 2019 Jun;82(6):1022-1027. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-345.


Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in raw wheat emphasizes the need to cook wheat products. 3,891 grain samples were tested for E. coli and Salmonella; 1,285 were tested for Listeria. Of wheat berries sampled, 0.44% were positive for E. coli and 1.23% were positive for Salmonella. Salmonella diversity was high, indicating various animal sources that are difficult to prevent. Cooking wheat products is the best preventative measure against foodborne illness from wheat.

Keywords: Foodborne illness; Raw dough; Raw wheat.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Load
  • Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli / isolation & purification
  • Food Microbiology* / statistics & numerical data
  • Listeria / isolation & purification
  • Salmonella / isolation & purification
  • Triticum* / microbiology