Effect of phosphodiesterase (1B, 2A, 9A and 10A) inhibitors on central nervous system cyclic nucleotide levels in rats and mice

Neurochem Int. 2019 Oct;129:104471. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2019.104471. Epub 2019 May 20.


Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition has been broadly investigated as a target for a wide variety of indications including central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Cyclic nucleotide (cNT) changes within associated tissues may serve as a biomarker of PDE inhibition. We recently developed robust sample harvesting and bioanalytical methods to quantify cNT levels in rodent brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Herein, we report on the application of those methods to study rodent species-specific and rodent brain region-specific cNT changes following individual or concomitant PDE inhibitor administration. Male Sprague Dawley (Crl:CD® [SD]) rats were dosed subcutaneously (sc) with a PDE1B inhibitor (DNS-0056), a PDE2A inhibitor (PF-05180999), a PDE9A inhibitor (PF-4447943), and a PDE10A inhibitor (MP10), each at a single dose of 10 or 30 mg/kg, or concomitantly with all 4 inhibitors at 10 mg/kg each. Male Carworth Farms (Crl:CF1 ®[CF-1]) mice were dosed intraperitoneally (ip) with the four individual inhibitors at a single dose of 10 mg/kg or concomitantly with all 4 inhibitors at 10 mg/kg each. The doses studied are generally adequate for affecting measurable cNT levels in the tissues of interest and were thereby chosen for this investigation. Measured 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) changes were generally statistically insignificant in the brain, striatum and CSF after administration of the aforementioned PDE inhibitors. However, the levels of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) increased in both rat and mouse striatum (2.2-, 2.1- and 1.7-fold and 6.4-, 2.8- and 1.7-fold, respectively) after PDE2A, 9A, and 10A inhibitor dosing. In all cases, the cNT changes followed the same trend in the brain, striatum and CSF after PDE inhibitor dosing and dose response was observed in rats. Concomitant treatment with PDE1B, PDE2A, PDE9A and PDE10A inhibitors resulted in a 4.4- and 36.7-fold increase of cGMP in rat and mouse striatum. The drug exposures after concomitant treatment were also higher than in the individual inhibitor-treated animals. cGMP enhancement observed could be due to synergistic effects, though an additive effect of the combined inhibitor concentrations may also contribute.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Cyclic adenosine monophosphate; Cyclic guanosine monophosphate; MP10 or PF-2545920 (PubChem CID: 11581936); PF-4447943 (PubChem CID: 25115162); Phosphodiesterase inhibitor; Rodent CNS; Synergistic effect.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Central Nervous System / drug effects*
  • Central Nervous System / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / drug effects*
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1
  • Pde1b protein, mouse
  • Cyclic GMP