Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 May;20(3):527-536.
doi: 10.5811/westjem.2019.2.40979. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The Flipped Classroom: A Critical Appraisal

Free PMC article

The Flipped Classroom: A Critical Appraisal

Aaron S Kraut et al. West J Emerg Med. .
Free PMC article


Introduction: The objective of this study was to review and critically appraise the medical education literature pertaining to a flipped-classroom (FC) education model, and to highlight influential papers that inform our current understanding of the role of the FC in medical education.

Methods: A search of the English-language literature querying Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsychINFO, PubMed, and Scopus identified 296 papers related to the FC using either quantitative, qualitative, or review methods. Two reviewers independently screened each category of publications using previously established exclusion criteria. Eight reviewers then independently scored the remaining 54 publications using either a qualitative, quantitative, or review-paper scoring system. Each scoring system consisted of nine criteria and used parallel metrics that have been previously used in critical appraisals of education research.

Results: A total of 54 papers (33 quantitative, four qualitative, and 17 review) on FC met a priori criteria for inclusion and were critically appraised and reviewed. The top 10 highest scoring articles (five quantitative studies, two qualitative studies, and three review papers) are summarized in this article.

Conclusion: This installment of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Academy Critical Appraisal series highlights 10 papers that describe the current state of literature on the flipped classroom, including an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of an FC approach, practical implications for emergency medicine educators, and next steps for future research.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: By the WestJEM article submission agreement, all authors are required to disclose all affiliations, funding sources and financial or management relationships that could be perceived as potential sources of bias. No author has professional or financial relationships with any companies that are relevant to this study. There are no conflicts of interest or sources of funding to declare.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Selection process for articles that focus on the flipped classroom model in medical education.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Article review breakdown by author.

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. Knowles MS. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy. New York: Associate Press; 1970.
    1. Sadosty AT, Goyal DG, Gene Hern H, Jr, et al. Alternatives to the conference status quo: summary recommendations from the 2008 CORD Academic Assembly Conference Alternatives workgroup. Acad Emerg Med. 2009;16(Suppl 2):S25–31. - PubMed
    1. Jensen JL, Kummer TA, Godoy PD. Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2015;14(1):ar5. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Galway LP, Corbett KK, Takaro TK, et al. A novel integration of online and flipped classroom instructional models in public health higher education. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:181. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Garrison DR, Kanuka H. Blended learning: uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Internet High Educ. 2004;7(2):95–105.

LinkOut - more resources