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Review
, 421, 159-177

Role of NOD1 and ALPK1/TIFA Signalling in Innate Immunity Against Helicobacter Pylori Infection

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Review

Role of NOD1 and ALPK1/TIFA Signalling in Innate Immunity Against Helicobacter Pylori Infection

Le Ying et al. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.

Abstract

The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with gastric epithelial cells to induce inflammatory responses that are a hallmark of the infection. This inflammation is a critical precursor to the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. A major driver of this inflammation is a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), present in a subpopulation of more virulent H. pylori strains. The cagPAI T4SS specifically activates signalling pathways in gastric epithelial cells that converge on the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which in turn upregulates key immune and inflammatory genes, resulting in various host responses. It is now clear that H. pylori possesses several mechanisms to activate NF-κB in gastric epithelial cells and, moreover, that multiple signalling pathways are involved in these responses. Two of the dominant signalling pathways implicated in NF-κB-dependent responses in epithelial cells are nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain 1 (NOD1) and a newly described pathway involving alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain (TIFA). Although the relative roles of these two pathways in regulating NF-κB-dependent responses still need to be clearly defined, it is likely that they work cooperatively and non-redundantly. This chapter will give an overview of the various mechanisms and pathways involved in H. pylori induction of NF-κB-dependent responses in gastric epithelial cells, including a 'state-of-the-art' review on the respective roles of NOD1 and ALPK1/TIFA pathways in these responses.

Keywords: ALPK1; NOD1; Peptidoglycan; TIFA; cagPAI.

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