Coats disease is an idiopathic retinal vascular disorder with retinal telangiectasia with intraretinal and/or subretinal exudation without appreciable retinal or vitreal traction. The condition is sporadic with no associated systemic abnormalities. Unilateral involvement in young males is the typical presentation with most cases being diagnosed in the first and second decade of life. Younger the patient, more severe is the presentation and poorer the visual outcome. The management varies with the stage of the disease. Over the years, we have shifted from enucleation to a more conservative approach for the treatment of Coats disease with laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy and surgery for retinal detachment achieving good outcomes. The anti-VEGF agents have come into the scene as important form of adjuvant treatment along with the traditional management options. This article describes the clinical features, underlying pathology, classification and staging, the complications and the management of Coats disease and gives an overview of the changing trends in treatment and outcomes spanning across five decades.
Keywords: Coats disease; exudation; retina; telangiectasia.